After decades when very little happened, climate change has pushed a massive project to halt Sahelian desertification to the top of the priority list with Mauritania playing a lead role.
Sudan – mainly non-violent protests continue almost daily. Government hot and cold. Major peace agreement for CAR initialled in Khartoum.
Most of the maritime boundaries in the Red Sea have been delimited through negotiations or arbitration. The main current dispute is between Egypt and Sudan.
Dubai Ports terminal in Djibouti seized by the government. DP sells a part stake in Berbera port to Ethiopia. Background is Qatar vs. four dispute.
Sudan, economically weak, seeks to improve relations with its neighbours and with the US. A long way to go.
Freedom of navigation through the Bab al-Mandab is important to the trade in oil, LNG, foodstuffs and manufactured goods between Europe and Asia. Vessels passing through the strait continue to be at risk of attack.
The lease by Sudan to Turkey of the Red Sea island of Suakin raises tension and risks extending the Qatar vs. four dispute to the Red Sea, with the possibility of proxy conflict.
China, USA, UAE and others building up their presence in the Horn of Africa – why?
UAE naval base at Berbera, its second on the African coast. Saudi base planned in Djibouti. Yemen war one among several reasons.
Since the Arab Spring the UAE has developed as a military power. New bases this year in Libya and Eritrea.